Date of Last Revision

2023-05-02 23:40:57


Exercise Science - PrePhysical Therapy

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Date of Expected Graduation

Spring 2017


The purpose of this study was to determine if at the same intensity, two separate modalities of exercise could be perceived to have different difficulties. The modalities chosen for this study were underwater treadmill versus land treadmill. It was hypothesized that at the same sub maximal protocol, the underwater treadmill would be perceived as easier than the land treadmill. Both an objective measure, heart rate, and a subjective measure, a 10-point Borg rate of perceived exertion (RPE) scale (Borg, 1982), were used. Ten healthy University of Akron students from the ages 19-23 were used for this study. The students did two separate trials, one land and one underwater, one week apart. Some were selected to do the underwater treadmill first while others did the land treadmill first. The students participated in a 7 stage, 14-minute protocol while wearing a heart rate monitor and sharing their perceived exertion on a 10-point scale after every stage. The results found that the heart rates at all stages were not significantly different between the land treadmill and underwater treadmill. This indicates that the intensity of the protocol was relatively the same. The RPE measurements of the participants were also found to not be significantly different between the land and underwater treadmill. This suggests that both protocols were perceived to have similar intensities. It was concluded that the protocols both objectively and subjectively had similar intensities.

Research Sponsor

Dr. Ronald Otterstetter

First Reader

Mrs. Rachele Kappler

Second Reader

Dr. Laura Richardson



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