Frozen-in birefringence and anisotropic shrinkage in optical moldings: I. Theory and simulation scheme
An unconditionally stable upwinding scheme was proposed to improve the efficiency of the viscoelastic simulation in molding of optical products using a CV/FEM/FDM technique. A significant computation time saving was achieved due to an elimination of subdivision of the time step as required in the conventional numerical scheme. The approach was applied to simulate the flow-induced birefringence and anisotropic shrinkage in disk moldings using a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation, orientation functions and equation of state. The two-dimensional triangular finite element meshes were used in the disk cavity and the one-dimensional tubular elements were utilized in the delivery system. Good agreement was shown between the simulated pressure traces and flow birefringence in the molding using the unconditionally stable upwinding scheme of the present study and the conventional numerical scheme of the earlier study. In addition, an algorithm for simulation of the thermal stresses and birefringence in moldings using linear viscoelastic and photoviscoelastic constitutive equations was presented by combining constrained and free quenching approaches. The proposed numerical scheme for viscoelastic simulation of injection molding is more suitable for future commercial applications.
Isayev, Avraam, "Frozen-in birefringence and anisotropic shrinkage in optical moldings: I. Theory and simulation scheme" (2010). Polymer Engineering Faculty Research. 71.