Date of Graduation

Spring 2018

Document Type

Honors Research Project

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Nursing


Nursing RN/BSN Akron

Research Sponsor

Brian Radesic, DNP, MSN, CRNA

First Reader

Lisa Foster, MSN, APRN, CNP

Second Reader

Connie Chronister, DNP, RN, CCRN


Intravenous (IV) cannulation is required to administer medications and fluids to patients. In addition, it is also a recognized source of pain and anxiety in over one-half of all patients requiring IV insertion (Page & Taylor, 2010). Pain management is within nurses’ scope of practice, therefore it’s important to identify effective pain management strategies. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that a topical vapocoolant spray has on pain in pre-operative adults during IV cannulation. The gate control theory of pain will guide this randomized, experimental study of a convenience sample of adults in an outpatient endoscopic floor at a Northeast Ohio level one-trauma center. Participants are randomly assigned to groups based on even weeks of the month (control group) and odd weeks (experimental group). Participants will rate pain at pre- and post- procedures on visual analog scales. Independent two sample t-tests will be used to determine group differences. In relation to our research investigation, we analyzed both groups’ answers to one question: “How painful was the needle stick?” on a scale of 1-10, 10 being most painful. The reported pain score of the non-spray group was 3.33, compared to the spray group mean of 2.86. These averages are rather close in value, suggesting no significant difference in perceived pain level with the use of the vapocoolant spray prior to IV insertion.