Buchtel College of Arts and Sciences

Date of Last Revision

2023-05-04 11:41:11


Biomedical Science

Honors Course


Number of Credits


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Date of Expected Graduation

Spring 2021


Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which occurred in the organisms, and convergent evolution across clades. The complexity of the structural modifications and components needed to perform power amplification was not the same across species. While there is some insight on the evolution of power-amplified structures, overall, more research needs to be done in determining the rate of evolutionary change.

Research Sponsor

Dr. Henry Astley

First Reader

Dr. Brian Bagatto

Second Reader

Dr. Peter Niewiarowski

Honors Faculty Advisor

Dr. Brian Bagatto



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