Janie A. Johns


The National Environmental Protection Act of 1969 (NEPA), went into effect on January 1, 1970. It consists of a declaration of purpose followed by two separate titles. Title I contains both the broad policy statement of Congress "to use all practicable means and measures . . .to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony," and the "action-forcing mechanism" of Section 102(2)(c) that requires all Federal agencies to prepare an environmental impact statement for all "major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment." Title II established the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), designed to be an overseer of the NEPA, and to promulgate guidelines for compliance with the Act.