Direct measurement of the in-situ developed latent image: the residual swelling fraction.
The spatial distribution of polymer photoresist and deuterium labeled developer highlights a fraction of material at a model line edge that swells, but does not dissolve. This residual swelling fraction remains swollen during both the in situ development and rinse steps uncovering that the final lithographic feature is resolved by a collapse mechanism during the drying step. We demonstrate that contrast variant neutron reflectivity provides a general method to probe the nanometer resolved in situ development and rinse process step.
Vogt, Bryan, "Direct measurement of the in-situ developed latent image: the residual swelling fraction." (2007). Polymer Engineering Faculty Research. 1079.