Cory Anderson


Amish; Old Order Mennonite; slow-moving vehicle (S.M.V.); glare; conspicuity; passing; left turn; intersection; Lancaster County


Horse and buggy transportation is spreading as rapidly as its Amish and Old Order Mennonite users are, as are buggy crashes with motor vehicles. This study examines the primary causes of 76 reported horse and buggy crashes in Pennsylvania in 2006. The main crash types identified include a motorist rear-ending a forward-moving buggy, a motorist striking the buggy while attempting to pass, buggy struck while crossing an intersection, and buggy struck while making a left turn. While causative factors varied, major factors include the motorist or buggy driver incorrectly comprehending speed differentials, the motorist acting carelessly around the buggy, and miscommunication between the motorist and buggy driver. Within these crash types, buggy conspicuity was not commonly a potential cause.


This study was largely undertaken while at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; I acknowledge the suggestions of Lori Rice, Gary Johnson, and Xueming (Jimmy) Chen. I further acknowledge the suggestions of Everett Burkholder of Burkholder Buggy Shop, Dayton, VA, and an anonymous reviewer. An earlier draft of this paper was presented at the 2010 International Society for Agricultural Safety and Health meeting; audience feedback was helpful.


This article is the first of three by the author addressing horse and buggy crashes. The other two articles are in the same issue, pages 100-115 and 116-124.