Clay minerals for nanocomposites and biotechnology: surface modification, dynamics and responses to stimuli
Clay minerals find a wide range of application in composites, paints, drilling liquids, cosmetics, and medicine. This article reviews chemical and physical properties of natural and organically modified clay minerals to understand the nanometre-scale structure, surface characteristics, and application in functional materials. The relation between fundamental properties and materials design is emphasized and illustrated by examples. The discussion comprises the following: an overview; surface structure and cation density; solubility and solubility reversal by surface modification; the degree of covalent and ionic bonding represented by atomic charges; the distribution of metal substitution sites; measurements and simulations of interfacial properties at the nanometre scale; self-assembly, packing density, and orientation of alkylammonium surfactants on the clay mineral surface; the density and chain conformation of surfactants in organic interlayer spaces; the free energy of exfoliation in polymer matrices and modifications by tuning the cleavage energy; thermal transitions, diffusion, and optical responses of surfactants on the mineral surface; elastic moduli and bending stability of clay layers; and the adsorption mechanism of peptides onto clay mineral surfaces in aqueous solution. Potential applications in biotechnology and other future uses are described.
Heinz, Hendrik, "Clay minerals for nanocomposites and biotechnology: surface modification, dynamics and responses to stimuli" (2012). Polymer Engineering Faculty Research. 512.