An Analysis of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Pipe Flow with Variable Properties
A new approach to the analysis of variable property heat transfer for turbulent flow is presented. The mathematical model developed herein is based on the principle of surface renewal and involves the use of an integral technique. The proposed expressions for heat transfer account for both variable conductivity and variable viscosity and are applicable to heating and cooling. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with available experimental heat transfer data for moderate Prandtl number fluids.
Journal of Heat Transfer
Thomas, L. C.; Rajagopal, R.; and Chung, Benjamin T.F., "An Analysis of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Pipe Flow with Variable Properties" (1974). Mechanical Engineering Faculty Research. 1037.