Buchtel College of Arts and Sciences

Date of Last Revision

2021-09-14 08:22:17



Honors Course

3750:498 Honors Research in Psychology

Number of Credits


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts

Date of Expected Graduation

Spring 2021


The emerging psychological field of men and masculinities is credited with the development and validation of an array of instruments to assess masculinity-related constructs, with many emanating from the gender role strain paradigm (GRSP; Levant & Powell, 2017; Levant & Richmond, 2007, 2016; Pleck, 1981, 1995). However, there is little research that employs a positive psychology framework while considering the potential positive aspects of masculinity. The majority of literature utilizing these measures focus on the pathological effects of masculinity. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) and personal growth initiative (PGI) in a sample of college students, utilizing two instruments: the Male Role Norms Inventory–Short Form (MRNI-SF; Levant et al., 2013) and the Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012). No significant relationship was found between the total scores of the two instruments. However, further bivariate and canonical correlation analysis indicated significant relationships between various subscales of the measures. These findings contribute meaningful data to a gap in the literature (Cole et al., 2021), while also giving a new direction for the next generation of masculinity-related measures (Thompson & Bennett, 2015; Wade, 2015).

Research Sponsor

Ingrid K. Weigold, Ph.D.

First Reader

Ginelle L. Wolfe, M.A.

Second Reader

Jodi Kearns, Ph.D.

Honors Faculty Advisor

Charles A. Waehler, Ph.D.

Ha_C_Honors_Thesis_2021_SIGNED_2021-05-03.pdf (2359 kB)
Ha, C. Honors Thesis 2021 (Signed Archival Copy 2021-05-03)



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