Buchtel College of Arts and Sciences (BCAS)

Date of Last Revision

2021-09-10 15:31:06



Honors Course


Number of Credits


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Date of Expected Graduation

Spring 2020


Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) inflicts thousands of Americans annually, and is typically treated with the immunotherapy BCG. However, due to a BCG shortage, there is a new need for novel treatments of NMIBC. Addressing this issue, several imidazolium salt derivatives were synthesized and characterized with the intent of treatment within the bladder. These imidazolium salts were tested against different human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro to determine their reactivity and cytotoxicity. Among these results are GI50 concentrations for each drug, which is the concentration of drug needed to see growth inhibition in 50% of treated cells. Previous published research shows that these imidazolium salts do not target the cell nucleus, and it is believed that these drugs proceed through a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. To show this, mitochondria were extracted from human bladder cancer cell lines and treated with drug, and detection of cytochrome c leaving the mitochondria by immunoblot (the first step in the mitochondrial apoptotic caspase-pathway) supports that these imidazolium salts proceed through a mitochondrial mechanism.

Research Sponsor

Dr. Wiley Youngs

First Reader

Dr. Philip Abbosh

Second Reader

Dr. Christopher Ziegler

Honors Faculty Advisor

Dr. Claire Tessier



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