Androdioecy (mixtures of males and hermaphrodites) is distinguished by its rarity, being found in only similar to 40 animal species. Many of these species are clam shrimp in the genus Eulimnadia. A metapopulation model for the maintenance of androdioecy is tested herein by examining male success in aquaria with a single male-producing hermaphrodite introduced into an otherwise all-hermaphrodite population. This migration experiment did allow males to persist in these populations for seven generations, although at levels below those found in other populations of these shrimp. These results suggest that the maintenance of androdioecy via 'reproductive assurance' is unlikely by way of migration of male-producing hermaphrodites.
Weeks, Stephen C., "Can Males Successfully Invade Hermaphroditic Populations of Clam Shrimp (Eulimnadia Texana)?" (2009). Biology Faculty Research. 30.